51 years of Myanmar-Bangladesh ties
January 13, 2023, marked the 51 years of bilateral ties between Myanmar and Bangladesh. Myanmar recognized Bangladesh as a sovereign state on January 13, 1972. There were many ups and downs between the two neighbors over these 51 years. Why was this? Because the relations between Bangladesh and Myanmar were strained time to time. But this strained tie must be smoothed for ensuring greater regional interest.But Myanmar-Bangladesh needs to strengthen ties for ensuring the greater interest of the two regions such as South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Meanwhile, Myanamr's Army Chief Min Aung Hlaing expressed special thanks to Bangladesh in his address to the countrymen on the occasion of Myanmar's Independence Day on January 04, 2023. This information was found in the report of Qatar-based media Al-Jazeera. According to the report, Min Aung Hlaing gave special thanks to some countries including Bangladesh and India. He thanked these countries for advancing positive relations despite various adversities.
Myanmar celebrated its 75th Independence Day on January 4. On this day in 1948, the country got independence from Britain. Army Chief Min Aung Hlaing's speech was aired on Myanmar's state television channel. In the speech, Min Aung Hlaing criticized some countries for interfering in his country's affairs. On the contrary, he thanked China, India, Thailand, Laos and Bangladesh for promoting cooperative relations for a long time.
On the occasion of the diamond jubilee of the independence of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, the people of Bangladesh extended warm greetings and felicitations to the people of Myanmar and wished them inclusive peace and prosperity.
However, the relationship between Myanmar and Bangladesh has never been smooth and has gone through frequent ups and downs over the last 50 years on a number of issues. Despite having many possibilities, the two countries have not been able to build a real relationship with each other. The people from both sides are deprived of enjoying neighborly advantages for these stained relations.
Improved ties between the two neighbors can ensure some common regional advantages. Geographically, Myanmar is located to the east of Bangladesh and the two countries share a 271 km long border. To its southeast, it is at least 150 km wide, due to its hilly terrain and dense forest cover. Strategically, Myanmar enjoys a distinct position between the two Asian giants, China and India. The same position applies to Bangladesh. Naturally, both Bangladesh and Myanmar enjoy important strategic positions in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Basically, Myanmar and Bangladesh both can be used as a gateway between South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Myanmar can use Bangladesh as a transportation route to reach the markets of Bhutan, Nepal, North East India easily. Bangladesh and Myanmar share some regional common platforms such as the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Co-operation (BIMSTEC), an organization made up of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand which seeks strategic and economic development. If Bangladesh and Myanmar improve their relations with each other, their dependence on China and India could be reduced and they could increase trade with other countries in Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Bangladesh can be used as an important hub to connect ASEAN and SAARC. Myanmar, too, as an ASEAN member, can access the SAARC free-trade bloc through Bangladesh if the Myanmar-Bangladesh ties can be improved.
In the case of bilateral relations, there were two issues that caused some annoyance between them. The first was the demarcation of the sea-boundary between them. It is a matter of satisfaction that the matter was settled peacefully by the 1982 International Tribunal of the Sea Convention in March 2012. As Myanmar and Bangladesh, both share the Bay of Bengal area and a 271 km long border, both the countries can take part in tackling nontraditional security threats in the Bay of Bengal such as tackling piracy, illegal drug dealing, human trafficking, environmental degradation, and countering terrorists in the region. The second is the Rohingya refugee issue. Between August and November 2017, it was reported that a military operation in Myanmar had forced more than 700,000 Rohingyas to cross the border into neighboring Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh government has faced the Rohingya crisis many times. In 1978, an anti-insurgency operation by the then military government of Myanmar in Rakhine State resulted in a massive brutal crackdown, with some 300,000 Rohingya crossing the border into Bangladesh. The two countries have resolved the issue peacefully through bilateral talks. But the current 2017 Rohingya crisis needs a fruitful sustainable solution between Myanmar and Bangladesh to bolster the ties. Definitely, Bangladesh and Myanmar should find a durable closer Bangladesh-Myanmar ties have great economic potential - but the Rohingya issue must be resolved. Enhanced bilateral ties between Bangladesh and Myanmar could contribute to the growth of trade and investment relations with ASEAN and BIMSTEC countries.
There are other routes to bilateral cooperation. Myanmar is rich in natural resources such as tin, zinc, copper, tungsten, coal, marble, limestone, natural gas, hydropower, etc. Myanmar could thus be a major source of energy for Bangladesh to ensure its energy security.
Myanmar is also a major supplier of natural wood to the world. While it has traditionally eyed foreign investment in the oil and gas sector, the country has recently shifted its focus to attracting production-based investment. The country is well ahead in power generation following a good investment in hydropower generation. The tourism industry is also a promising sector of the country. Religious tourism can be a source of potential. There are many Buddhists in Bangladesh.
Through the import of gas and electricity, Bangladesh can obtain its future energy security. The two countries can jointly explore oil and gas fields in the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh can also contribute to the development of Myanmar�s infrastructure.
The proposed construction of the Asian Highway, funded by the Asian Development Bank, can increase land connectivity between the two countries and increase trade in products such as fertilizers, plastics, cement, furniture, etc. Bangladesh is on the way to the completion of its railway project Dohazari-Cox's Bazar railway line. The line will run from Dohazari in Chattogram to Cox's Bazar (one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country). This line can be extended to North East India, Nepal, and Bhutan. If this line can be extended to China-SouthEast Asia via Bangladesh�s Ghundhum- Myanmar as part of the proposed Trans Asian Railway Network Asian Highway Network, the whole region can definitely benefit. Myanmar should take such an initiative to join the Trans Asian Railroad.
Myanmar, which at present does have sophisticated manufacturing, can import electronics and pharmaceutical products that are readily produced from Bangladesh and benefit from the technology transfer.
However, the two countries can also increase agricultural production through joint ventures. Apart from adopting joint investment projects, Bangladesh can increase imports of various agricultural products including pulses, spices, fish, and rice. Enhanced bilateral ties between Bangladesh and Myanmar could contribute to the growth of trade and investment relations with ASEAN and BIMSTEC countries. This could create an opening to solve the Rohingya problem and stop militant activities.
Basically, the Rakhine region of Myanmar can be used as a trade hub between Bangladesh and Myanmar. The agro-products in Rakhine need a viable market. Bangladesh can be a big market for the goods that are produced in Rakhine. On the other hand, Bangladesh has vast and tremendous experience in garments and production of agricultural sectors. Myanmar can exchange Bangladeshi expertise to benefit. Myanmar�s products (known as Burmese products are very popular in Bangladesh), Myanmar and Bangladesh can set up some border hats (border market) between Bangladesh and Myanmar to boost up trade. India and Bangladesh are benefitting from such kinds of hats at the border. Thus, strengthening people-to-people contact, bolstering public diplomacy between the two sides can mend the strained ties between the two neighbors.
- The writer is a contributor