Importance of Organic Matter, Bio-fertilizers and Organic Farming in Modern Agriculture
Restoring Soil Eco-systems for Sustainable AgricultureÖ
Modern farming practices and development works has imposed tremendous pressure on the environmental security and sustainability. Infectious diseases, ecological deterioration, loss of biodiversity, soil health depletion, extermination of beneficial pest and climate alteration have become the recurrent comprehensive threats today. O the basis of eco-friendly farming and bio-fertilizers, Balailal Jana had been published a book from Bharoti Book Stall in 2004.
This book presents sustainable Agriculture, organic farming, inorganic fertilizers in crop production; compost making; eco-friendly agriculture, importance of bio-fertilizer, vermin-composting, soil structure, soil texture and soil profile.
During the period of 1960-1970, green revolution had brought a new dimension in agricultural sectors. Later on ? silver revolution intensified fish resources and white revolution for poultry resources during 1980-90 to reduce the global poverty level. International fertilizer and Pesticides Company advised local farmers to employ chemical fertilizers and pesticides in land for more production and nutrition security. Previously, farmers used to apply sap of diverse plants, indigenous nets for killing pest, and husks of various crops - that was a traditional agriculture. Dr. Masanobu Fukuoka is the father of organic farming. He explains organic farming means no plough, no fertilizers, no pesticides, don't cut weeds but mix with soil for high yielding.
In general, farmers employ detrimental agrochemicals in crops land without considering the beneficial pest protection and pollination. Potash, sulphate, calcium carbonate, triples super phosphate are normally used in field. For potato, egg-plant they apply ? carbendajin, wantap-50, wansilva 10, quinfis-25%, denitol, festaq 2.5, melathion, corden, methoxicore, bydrin, dibrone, diajinon 10, lebasid and dimecron. Fenom, theovit, nexin, sevin, diplerox, monotuf 40, thiojen has been used for sponse gourd, ribbed gourd, teasle gourd, sweet gourd, cucumber, cabbage, cauliflower and Hyacinth bean. In the same way, for Aush, Amon and Boro ? polivit-500, kiridan-5, crijol-5, basudin-10, topsin mithyle, ripcord, dursburn 20 and sebin-60 are used. Such type of agrochemicals kills beneficial pests and microorganisms which are very essential for pollination. Some of them are - cyanobacteria, azotobactor, ghas foring, pata foring, sobuj poka, pata poka, damsel bugs, ground beetles, lacewings, pirate bugs, tachinid flies etc. Not only, pests are killed but also, frogs, birds, snakes, ledibirda bittole are killed by agrochemicals. As a result, crops pollination is now under danger.
Pesticides can potentially wipe out common bumble bee (bombus terretis) populations. Prof. Nigel Raine mentions: globally, 26% less capacity of pollination has been visible nowadays.
Researchers mention pollination is essential for crops that will escalate by the use indigenous manures. The bio-fertilizers ? green wastes, coconut cake, oil cakes, sludge, coal ash, wood ash, paddy husk, castor cake, mustard cake, groundnut cake, linseed cake, neem cake, fish meal, water hyacinths, cow dung, vegetable materials, stool of livestock's, weeds of big tree, farmyard manures etc. These manures have a possible upshot help in correcting severe unsustainable microbiological or chemical reaction of soil escalate pollination. Biological system such as, bacillus thuringiensis can make protein oriented compound which kills lepidopetra and colepetra class based insects. The protein element of tobacco mosaic can eradicate X-virus and Y-virus. Osmotin and seamatin protein prevents hostile fungus.
Balailal Jana explains we may employ farm yard manures for sustainable agricultural practices. Manures of cows and buffaloes are enriched with nitrogen, phosphate and potash. Both cow dung and urine can be use as manures. In cow dung, the amount of nitrogen is 0.40%, phosphate 0.20% and potash 0.10%. In urine, there are 1% nitrogen, 0.1% phosphate and 1.35% potash. Goat and sheep excretes both dung and urine can be applied in land as natural fertilizer enriches with nitrogen 0.75%, phosphate 0.50% and potash 2.10%. Their urine is composed with 1.35 % nitrogen, 0.05 % phosphate and 2.10% potash. Excreta and droppings emerge from horse are also beneficial for agriculture. The horse dung has 0.55% nitrogen, 0.30% phosphate and 0.40% potash. In addition, urine has 1.35% nitrogen, 0.10% phosphate and 1.25% potash. Apart from that, manures induced from swine are healthy for soil fertility. Dung of swine has 0.55% nitrogen, 0.50% phosphate and 0.40% potash. Also, urine is enriched with 0.40% nitrogen, 0.20% phosphate and 0.40% potash.
In 1881, Charles Darwin investigated the role of vermin-composting in crop production and increasing soil fertility. Pollination is essential for crops that will escalate by the use of local manures. Farm yard manures would boost the crops production capacity of soil. Not only integrate the air, water, organic matter and minerals in soil, farmers would be risk free from chemicals. In addition, these manures enhance the water holding potential of soil. Also, farm yard manures ensure the nutritional value of vegetables and fruits.
This reader friendly book is a treasure of knowledge and represents inclusive thoughts' to ameliorate the fortune of our farmers. This manuscript is a valuable one for agricultural scientist's, agronomist, environmentalist, entrepreneurs and students of environmental science.
The reviewer is an Environmental Analyst & Associate Member, Bangladesh Economic Association