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How corona vaccine is working in my body?

Published : Thursday, 25 February, 2021 at 12:00 AM  Count : 1136
Zubair Khaled Huq

How corona vaccine is working in my body?

How corona vaccine is working in my body?

To understand how COVID-19 vaccines work we should first look at how our bodies fight illness. When germs, such as the virus that causes COVID-19, invade our bodies, they attack and multiply. This invasion, called an infection, is what causes illness. Our immune system uses several tools to fight infection. Different types of white blood cells fight infection in different ways. Macrophages are white blood cells that swallow up and digest germs and dead or dying cells. The macrophages leave behind parts of the invading germs called antigens. The body identifies antigens as dangerous and stimulates antibodies to attack them. B-lymphocytes are defensive white blood cells. They produce antibodies that attack the pieces of the virus left behind by the macrophages. T-lymphocytes are another type of defensive white blood cell. They attack cells in the body that has already been infected.        

COVID-19 vaccination will help protect you from getting COVID-19. You may have some side effects, which are normal signs that your body is building protection.

The first time a person is infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, it can take several days or weeks for their body to make and use all the germ-fighting tools needed to get over the infection. After the infection, the person's immune system remembers what it learned about how to protect the body against that disease. The body keeps a few T-lymphocytes, called memory cells that go into action quickly if the body encounters the same virus again. When the familiar antigens are detected, B-lymphocytes produce antibodies to attack them. Experts are still learning how long these memory cells protect a person against the virus that causes void-19.  Side effects can affect your ability to do daily activities, but they should go away in a few days.    

With most COVID-19 vaccines, you will need 2 shots for them to work. Get the second shot even if you have side effects after the first shot unless a vaccination provider or your doctor tells you not to get a second shot. It takes time for your body to build protection after any vaccination. COVID-19 vaccines that require 2 shots may not protect you until a week or two after your second shot.      

Everyone needs to continue using all the tools available to help stop this pandemic as we learn more about how COVID-19 vaccines work in real-world conditions. Cover your mouth and nose with a mask when around others, stay at least 6 feet away from others, avoid crowds, avoid poorly ventilated spaces and wash your hands often.  

COVID-19 vaccines help our bodies develop immunity to the virus that causes COVID-19 without us having to get the illness. Different types of vaccines work in different ways to offer protection, but with all types of vaccines, the body is left with a supply of "memory" T-lymphocytes as well as B-lymphocytes that will remember how to fight that virus in the future. It typically takes a few weeks for the body to produce T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes after vaccination. Therefore, it is possible that a person could be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 just before or just after vaccination and then gets sick because the vaccine did not have enough time to provide protection.

Sometimes after vaccination, the process of building immunity can cause symptoms, such as fever. These symptoms are normal and are a sign that the body is building immunity. Getting vaccinated is one of the many steps you can take to protect yourself and others fromCOVID-19. Protection is critically important because, for some people, it can cause severe illness or death.      

Oxford AstraZeneca, vaccine, which requires a two-dose regimen, contains an inactivated cold-causing adenovirus with genetic instructions for making coronavirus proteins to trigger immunity. Clinical-trial data suggest that side effects of the second shot are milder than those caused by the first. Vaccines work by triggering your immune system to produce a reaction; you can however have side effects after you receive the vaccine that feels similar to having a real infection.

Things like having a fever, or getting a headache, often described as flu-like symptoms, are common after receiving many vaccines and this is the same for the approved COVID-19vaccines. Having these symptoms means that your immune system is working as it should be. Usually, these symptoms last a much shorter time than a real infection would, most are gone within the first 1-2 days.       

Who can't have the vaccines? None of the trials conducted on the currently available vaccines has included pregnant or breastfeeding women. It is expected that there will be more trials and data on this in future. Children and young people have a very low risk of becoming seriously ill from COVID-19 disease compared to adults. Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines should not be given to those who have had previous severe allergic reaction to, a previous dose of the same COVID-19vaccine.       

How corona vaccine is working in my body?

How corona vaccine is working in my body?

Getting COVID-19 might offer some natural protection or immunity from re-infection with the virus that causes COVID-19. But it's not clear how long this protection lasts. Because re-infection is possible andCOVID-19 can cause severe medical complications, it's recommended that people who have already had the disease get a COVID-19 vaccine. If you've hadCOVID-19, you might delay vaccination until 90 days after your diagnosis. Re-infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 is uncommon in the 90 days after you are first infected.      

You actually don't even get the full benefit of the vaccine until about two weeks after that second dose, so you are still susceptible in that time frame. But every recommendation from the World Health Organization, the CDC is to continue masking and social distancing until we get to herd immunity. Stopping a pandemic requires using all the tools available. Vaccines work with your immune system so your body will be ready to fight the virus if you are exposed. Other steps, like masks and social distancing, help reduce your chance of being exposed to the virus or spreading it to others. Together, COVID-19 vaccination and following CDC's recommendations to protect yourself and others will offer the best protection from COVID-19.    

There is not currently a plan in place to do antibody or immunity testing after the vaccine. The evidence suggests that the vaccine is successful in most people. Getting your COVID-19 vaccination as soon as you can, should protect you and may help to protect your family and those you care for. The COVID-19 vaccine should help reduce the rates of serious illness and save lives and will therefore reduce pressure on health and social care services.

Research results show that a single dose is good enough for the first 90 days but we see that signal of efficacy drop after 90 days, and the immune response in terms of stronger antibody response after the second dose. In combination, those two factors strongly suggest that a second dose should still be given.
Dr Zubair Khaled Huq Family medicine, Gerontology, Public Health Specialist

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