End of Lausanne Treaty and a multipolar world
Dirilis Ertugrul, a most telecasted TV series ever from the quote-un-quote secularist Turkey, is carrying a bigger role in Turkish politics rather than pleasuring people. It goes without saying that, it is a real-life example of Erdogan's so-called populism which is symbolising, and making people wakeful about, the dilapidated and glorious history of The Ottoman Empire (Usmania Caliphate). Notwithstanding, as a political thinker someone must observe 'the series' from the political standpoint which, is conveying "A Nation's Awakening" in the 21st Century and, also signifies that Turkey is going to challenge the US' 'unipolarity' after ending the Lausanne Treaty by 2023. In the meantime, many religious Muslims from various countries designated Erdogan as 'the sultan of the 21st century'.
The Ottoman Empire, a stunning Muslim dynasty, that ruled unofficially from 1299 to 1923 AD and cherished their dominance officially from 1362 to 1923 AD till the time of Lausanne Treaty. Talking about the treaty, this write-up must enunciate how a great kingdom lost its glorious and epic tradition and religious history getting grabbed into the traps of the First World War.
As a loss and aftermath of the World War-I and existing conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Allied French Republic, British Kingdom, Italy, Kingdom of Japan, Greece and Kingdom of Romania, Turkey had to miss out not only a big amount of money but also territories, sovereign 'super-power', rights to extract oil and gas, rights to expand arms power, rights of religious identity at the national level and so on by signing up the Treaty of Lausanne in Switzerland on 24 July 2023. Eventually, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, a Turkish field marshal, who came into the power lobbying with the allied forces as the first president of the secularist Turkey in the purpose of sweeping progressive reforms--making Turkey modernized, secular and industrial as like western country.
Getting experienced from World War-I (1914-18), World War-II (1939-45) and Cold War (1947-90), Turkey shifted its political nature day by day and its social and traditional differences between western Turkey and eastern Turkey, which is divided by Istanbul and Eurasian centre, was unprecedented after the 1960s. Being a secularist country, Turkish people didn't lose their religious beliefs and sentimental emotions at all even they have grown up with these what we discern after Erdogan's coming to the power. Eventually, Greece played a great part and influenced the Turkish after the Lausanne Treaty by their cultures and traditions.
The Soviet Union, however, got collapsed in 1990-91 and the world order became 'unipolar' following the winning of United States in the Cold War and United States could able to make the world leaders understand about how much powerful the US is! Alternatively, Greece, France and many European countries got experienced with the ruling system of Necmettin Erbakan, former Prime Minister of Turkey (1996-97), who raised his voice, to up-rise 'Turkish Nationalism', and in support of Islamic sentiment. But the rising of Erdogan and his 'Justice and Development Party' (AK Parti) altered the Turkish political and foreign policy nature which has been seen in the speech of Erdogan many times.
Erdogan established 'Turkish nationalism and Islamic populism' in the hearts of his supporters but 'the Game of Thrones' began after becoming president and coming to the actual power of Turkey. In 2016, Military Commander, Akin Ozturk strived heart and soul to succeed in 'the military coup' but 'the skype revolution' of Erdogan pulled up this military coup and make the world people witnessed that 'Erdogan has the power to claim himself 'a sultan of the new Turkey'.
Erdogan's policy, however, has changed the Turkish foreign policy. Turning Hagia Sophia into a mosque can be figured out to something as a populist approach of Erdogan to conceal the weakness of economic condition in this pandemic time but his purposes are so vague-minded for the general people to comprehend effortlessly. After the incident, many European countries like France, Greece laid down their policy against Erdogan's populism even France and Greece locked up many Muslim schools but they could not challenge the impetuousness of Erdogan.
The 2018 presidential election of Turkey was a fortunate victory for Erdogan where he got 52.59% of voters. This election's result gave the ultimate power in the hand of Recep Tayyip Erdogan and he intended for his goal of the post-Lausanne treaty period. A few months ago, Turkey confronted in a rivalry with Greece in the Marmara sea and Cyprus region aiming of extracting oil and gas through showing France and the US a plantain and it demonstrates that Turkey's of no avail of standing with the great power in the world stage and NATO is going to about-turn aiming a great plan.
Speaking of Nagorno-Karabakh, Turkey played win-win diplomacy here by supporting Azerbaijan and for being an ally of Russia that helped Turkey to be closer to Iran's foreign policy. Getting rid of the tension of Azerbaijani power of invading Iran territory, Iran started not to support Armenia at all and a few days ago Iran Foreign Ministry Spokesman said, "Iran is seriously and with high sensitivity monitoring the moves at the bordering areas of Iran and declares that any aggression against Iran's territories by any party will not be tolerated and Iran seriously warn all sides to show necessary caring in this regard".
As a result, Russia, Iran and Turkey got ability to conciliate the conflict by signing a peace treaty between Armenia and Azerbaijan in Moscow and it is undoubtedly a good outcome for Turkish foreign policy which helped to show muscle power and diplomatic capacity as well.
Khalifa Haftar and his allies got switched on about the military power of Turkey in Libya and also, Turkey has many military agreements with Russia, Pakistan, China and so on. It is the peak point by targeting that Turkey is thinking about to compile their lost golden era and it is perhaps will happen after the ending of the Lausanne Treaty.
Already, Turkey has taken plans to extract gas and oil and buying combat jet aircraft, missile and warship from Russia, China and so many countries even they are developing their own fighting Jet. According to the world economic statistic of 2018, Turkey's GDP is 771.4 billion US Dollars and the scholars are predicting that this amount of GDP would boom if they get rid of the compulsions of Lausanne Treaty but, predictably, US won't remain silent.
Observing the Democrats' hard policy and Trump's previous weak policy, Turkey must suffer if Joe Biden is elected but if Trump gets re-elected Turkey would have an option to stand in the world stage as well as in the NATO as a big power. Also, Russia and China will grow up accumulating their power as an opposite allied against the US and Europe. Now, the focusing point is the US Presidential election of 2020--which may rewrite the summation.
The writer is a student, Department of International Relations, University of Dhaka