How safe Wi-Fi and other EMFs exposure?
This writing is based on the scientific reports found in the databases (e.g., PubMed/MedLine and ScienceDirect) on the Wi-Fi using 2.4 GHz to ?5 GHz band. Wi-Fi (also called WLAN), a network communicating wirelessly to the internet.
Although, telecommunications industry claiming its no harmful impacts on human health, but repetitive exposures to Wi-Fi is evident to cause oxidative stress (e.g., localized and/or systematic), sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects, including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Chronic exposure of Wi-Fi is found to cause hormonal changes (e.g., catecholamines, pancreatic endocrine dysfunction, prolactin, progesterone and estrogen), decreased spermatogenesis and male infertility, increased cholinesterase, decreased special learning, psychological disorders, behavioral changes, changes in GABA and cholinergic transmission, melatonin lowering, sleep disruption, abnormal postnatal development, disruption of the development of teeth, cardiac changes, abnormal and/or irregular blood pressure, erythrocyte (RBC) damage, growth stimulation of adipose stem cells (obesity), induction of heat shock protein, and so on.
It has been seen that Wi-Fi and other electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure over a period of 1-2 months produced relatively modest changes in the structure of animal's (e.g., Swiss mice) brain and the neurons and most of the structural changes disappeared, when exposures ceased (reversible effect). However, chronic or long-term exposure (>3 months) is evident to exert severe impacts on brain and neuronal structure, those have been recognized as oneway or stable (irreversible) effects. Mutation accumulation produced by cellular DNA damage is likely to be both cumulative and irreversible.
Water (H2O) constitutes approximately 80%) of the cells in our body. Exposure to such kinds of radiations causes radiolysis of H2O and subsequent production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2 and free radicals such as hydroxyl (?OH) and singlet hydrogen (H?); the latter which, in turn, rapidly converts to superoxide (O2?-)/perhydroxyl (HO2?) radicals. Additionally, organic radicals (R?) and their peroxy radicals (RO2?) are also formed by H-abstraction and a rapid reaction with molecular oxygen (O2), respectively. The abstraction of H? occurs by the RO2?, causes lipid peroxidation and inactivation of protein molecules. Otherwise, H2O2 and O2?-in the presence of catalytic redox metal ions (principally iron and copper ions), lead to the production of ?OH radicals (via Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions).
Generally, Wi-Fi and lower frequency EMFs cause an activation of voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC), thus increasing in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i influx. An elevated level of [Ca2+]i stimulates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which in turns leads to synthesis nitric oxide (NO). The NO then reacts with O2?- to form the peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) or peroxynitrile radical (ONOO?). Like ?OH, ONOO-/ONOO? is also a highly reactive radical and capable of attacking a wide range of cellular targets, including lipids, thiols, proteins and DNA bases. Notably, a modest production of NO has many important biological roles in our body, however, an excessive production of NO imparts various damaging effects on the cells, tissues and organs.
Wi-Fi and EMFs are particularly damaging to the young children. Repetitive exposure of Wi-Fi and EMFs decreases DNA repair while an increase in DNA damage, strongly suggest that young children may be increasingly susceptible to cancer, especially brain cancer. Moreover, Wi-Fi exposure in this class of consumer may disrupt in brain development, and increases the risk of autism causation. Therefore, the placement of Wi-Fi in schools and houses around the country may well be a high level threat to the health of our children as well as to us.
The writer is an Assistant Professor, Department of