Lesson Plan: A must?
Teachers plan persistently to locate the opportunities and orders of courses, course-content, activities and tests to be executed and in order to do so educators acquaint themselves with resource units, textbooks, and available materials. By the same token, Bloom's Taxonomy is also a useful guide both for choosing an emphasis for teacher-directed activities in the development of a unit and for constructing tests to measure the effectiveness of teaching the unit. This theory can eventually reassure that successful teachers need unequivocal planning throughout.
However, the fundamental challenge is to produce and follow a proficient lesson plan. Lesson plan although is not a source for educators only to organize pedagogy but also a competent mechanism to strengthen school discipline both within and outside classroom. Further, teachers are skilled and employ lesson plan regularly therefore, trainers if do not plan for lesson plan for instruction can encounter mismanagement by the same token, can be inefficient while handling discipline problems. In broad lines, goal and objectives for lesson plan could be of two kinds; Stated and Anticipatory.
In Stated Lesson Plan, students clearly know what they are going to achieve after completing the course in general and what they will learn from the classes in the projected period in particular whereas, Anticipatory one makes students capable and agitated for upcoming instructions.
Pearson Edexcel Curriculum arguably is among one of the most tested modern curriculums. The English curriculum contains three main strands, with each split into sub-strands. The curriculum promotes engagement and enjoyment while ensuring students are well placed to achieve highly in later examinations hence, the pedagogy is not only based on theoretical concepts but also on practical ideas and offers wide range of contents from transcriptions and phonics, vocabulary, composition, handwriting, grammar to more complex word reading and accuracy, literal comprehension, inferential comprehension, text Structure and purpose, grammar for reading and so on.
Although the Cambridge and Pearson Educations of UK validate lesson plan based on this curriculum, there are many alternatives to this. For instance in Japan, teachers are instructed to follow the Steering Lesson Plan Committee and organize their lesson plans beginning with setting goals, testing prerequisite skills, teaching main ideas, summarizing and previewing the next lesson, topics and contents to be studied unlike the western model.
While reflecting regarding the activities undertaken in English Classes believes it to be embarrassing to see lecture, discuss and question to be the only activities where Jeremy Harmer eminently notes communication games, simulation and role-play, creative writing, writing as a cooperative activity, using computers, acting from a script, self-assess video, video as part of a lesson and so on to be capable possibilities in his book The Practice of English Language Teaching.
Also, to excel the four language skills of students which are listening, reading, speaking and writing various activities are essential like pre-teaching vocabulary, authenticity, extensive reading and listening and so on. Pre-teaching vocabulary refers to let students know the necessary word meanings beforehand in order to enhance the comprehension and relevance of the reading materials while authenticity makes students feel confident and enlivened as they experience familiarity and finally, extensive reading and listening denotes pleasurable and leisurely reading and listening at length while making it identifiable from intensive one that is more concentrated, less relaxed and often dedicated. Not only that, one of the modern pedagogies Flipped Approach is grounded in Constructivist Theory of Learning where knowledge is actively constructed by the learner and not passively received from the outside.
This approach is designed to create a student-centered learning environment in which students take care of their own learning and become more active and interactive in class. This pedagogy precisely employs asynchronous video lectures and practice problems as homework, and active, group-based problem solving activities in the classroom. It represents a unique combination of learning theories once thought to be incompatible.
Classroom management is important to establish an environment in which instruction and learning can occur productively. Students progressively enjoy the courses according to the affordability to socialize. To students, the best of classes are the ones allow them to pass the course while still allowing them to socialize with their peers and teachers.
Students are even observed to enjoy these courses despite high work demands and routine structure as a classroom that fosters the development of cooperative student-teacher and student-student learning activities eventually manages to control, discipline and excel students' capacities significantly.
It is being theorized that learning occurs through activity where learning is the core element of the activity and only the learner can do this task. Two core roles of teachers in a learning activity are to specify the learning task (e.g., with a spoken or written question) and to evaluate its performance. As can be pointed out, what learners demonstrate in performing the task is the knowledge they have acquired whereas the evaluation tells them how well they have learnt and this fundamental structure of learning activities can be located in all pedagogic contexts, regardless of the learning theory. On the other hand, approximately 20 percent of the total school population in the junior and senior high schools are classed as slow learners and in many cases they required to conform to the curricular pattern which has been established for the normal learners.
To avoid the disparity, teachers need to be experienced, skilled and avoid homogenous grouping in all circumstances. Effective classroom organization and behavior management are essential skills for any teacher, particularly teachers of students with special need. In general, observations in applied, special education classroom settings indicate poor classroom practices occurring and a lack of teacher skills in establishing environments that support the needs of students with behavioral challenges.
Research on classroom management indicates that effective teachers use preventive procedures such as clear and consistent classroom rules and routines, structured environment, and active supervision and student engagement yet the results suggest a conspicuous absence of comprehensive, classroom management procedures in course syllabi. More specifically, the majority of attention in course syllabi was placed on reactive procedures to reduce inappropriate behavior with little attention given to prevention strategies. Special need analysis hence should be undertaken more earnestly to avoid concerns at large.
The significance of teaching delivery is immense as it affects learners' perceptions. Participants perceived teaching excerpts with high teacher delivery to be more effective than segments with low teacher delivery, irrespective of the progress condition. Excerpts with high teacher delivery and less student progress were rated higher in effectiveness than excerpts with low teacher delivery and more student progress. Teacher evaluation in the globe in general and in the United States in particular currently is focused on student measures of achievement. Thus, it seems important that teachers are able to recognize accurately when students' progresses occur.
Furthermore, teaching as delivery also discourages teachers from seeking and using educational opportunities and teachable moments that aren't part of a prepackaged curriculum. As many teachers know, an extraordinary amount of learning can occur when a teacher seizes upon an unpredictable teachable moment. It is worth mentioning here, when teachers understand that their duty is to disseminate prearranged curriculum content, there is less spontaneity in the classroom and less time for serendipitous, teachable moments.
In a classroom where only the authorized curriculum is offered, teachers and students start to accept that topics not included in the official knowledge are not worth class time and that discussing them is digressing from the real teaching. These teachers are conditioned to feel guilty when they digress from the standard curriculum. They learn to resist the experience of education in the moment. Raising an issue or question, if it's not directly related to the prescribed lesson, is frowned upon.
Distracting the class with invitations to open dialogue or flights of fancy is seen as a loss of core learning time. Learning opportunities that allow teachers to teach beyond the limits of their imagination are erroneously labeled as time wasters and counterproductive. Teachers need to address why should students write just for a teacher or a grade? Why not encourage them to compose for real audiences and employ delivery as a motivation for writing well? Delivery helps make writing extracurricular and meaningful. Plagiarism disappears because composing for delivery is personal and demands author ownership. It refers to actual, physical delivery-sealing compositions in envelopes and walking them to the post office. Although this sounds obvious, it's rare to find teachers who practice physical delivery of student compositions, aside from the occasional writing contests. Hence, an ideal lesson plan is still to be finalized through which modern education will achieve innovative dimension.
The writer teaches English Language at
British Columbia School, Dhaka