The issues of refugee, forced migration and internally displaced persons are in much focus nowadays. The protection of the rights of refugees, who are without national protection and the prevention of conflicts, between the countries of origin of the refugees and the asylum countries are matters of national and international concern. In the twenty-first century, forced migration and its management are increasingly identified as one of major challenges for local, national, regional and global security governance.
Many scholars and policymakers have turned to the concept of security governance to describe new modes of security policy that differ from traditional approaches to national and international security. While traditional security policy is used to be the exclusive domain of state, security governance creates a global environment of security for all. Security Governance is a term that encompasses all the actors which provide more effective and efficient means to cope with today's security risks. In the contemporary peacemaking context, there has been much discussion about how international agencies and states intervening in the affairs of other states can contribute to the development of effective and democratic security governance. Mark Webber (2002:44) defined security governance expansively as an international system of rule, dependent on the acceptance of a majority of states that are affected, which throughout regulatory mechanism (both formal and informal) governs activities across a range of security and security related issues. This broad definition of security governance permits an investigation of the role that institutions play in the security domain, particularly the division of labour between states and international or supranational institutions, the proscribed and prescribed instruments and purposes of state action, and the consolidation of a collective definition of interest and threat.
The Institutions of Security Governance have played critical roles in mediating interstate conflicts, fostering cooperation between states under conditions of anarchy, identifying common threats and best practices for mitigating them and facilitating the practice of cooperation in the provision of security. There are two major categories of the institutions of security governance. First category consists of those institutions that are responsible for governing a specific security threats; for example---health, finance, energy and here both state and non-state actors with an important role-play. And second category consists of those which stand for maintaining regional orders, and the regional organizations are EU, ASEAN etc that play the most effective role.
More than 3,695 migrants are reported to have died while trying to make the crossing last year. At least 1,475 died during January 1 to May 25, 2016 making the journey to Europe by sea. They, who successfully migrated, have no security of life, food, shelter, health, education. They are the most vulnerable and there is an existential threat of survival. But the current security governance has not only failed to fulfil its basic function---the maintenance of international peace and security---but also to uphold its responsibility to protect the Refugees. And current piece of write up is an attempt to visualise crucial challenges what security governance faces to secure the refugees.
Firstly, it has to face problems in providing protection to more than 60 million forcibly displaced people with a very poor fund. Sixty million people who are currently refugees all need to find somewhere they can live in safety. But funds are very little for refugees. Twelve countries have contributed nothing so far to the €3 billion EU-Turkey deal, according to a European Commission report published on Wednesday last. Unlike UNHCR, Unicef, Médecins Sans Fronti?res/ Doctors Without Borders, Oxfam, the International Red Cross and Save the Children, there are other, smaller groups doing incredible work on the ground, every day. About $341 million was spent on the Syrian programme across all federal departments in 2015-2016.
The second challenge is the threats to refugee protection posed by growing security concerns, particularly in the wake of the November attacks in Paris and some other terrorist attacks in some western countries such as Brussels attacks, or recent attack in Orlando, USA.
Thirdly, there is power politics between most powerful states and emerging powers, which is the most important challenge. Instead of taking any effective initiative to stop the war, the world leaders are providing support to both the Syrian government and the opposition groups, militarily, logistically and diplomatically. Iran and Russia provide military support to the Syrian government, whereas the main opposition body, the Syrian Coalition, receives logistic and political support from major Sunni states of the Middle East, Turkey, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Moreover, France, Britain, and the US also provide political and military and logistic support to the opposition.
Fourthly, the role of UN has remained insignificant in containing war and making peace. But the UN played a frustrating role in the wars in Iraq, Angola, Bosnia and Sierra Leone and now in Syrian war. In Syrian war the major powers cannot reach a consensus and so the Security Council cannot do anything for this issue.
Fifthly, the regional organisations play ineffective role in this global crisis. To maintaining regional order, the regional organisation is the major institution of security governance. But most of the regional organisations are not serious in refugee crisis. As a result the security governance is struggling to cope with this rising number of refugees in present time.
Last but not the least, there are no higher principles any more, only self-interest. All the states (most powerful or less powerful or emerging power) just want to secure their domestic interest or self-interest rather than human security globally.
The negotiation among countries of origin where the refugees are produced, a country of asylum, the UNHCR, the security governance institutions and the securitising actors (media, civil society etc) can solve the security crisis of refugees. The principles of institutions of security governance should come out actively to accelerate the integration of emerging powers and most powerful states on a more equitable basis, and all of the regional and international institution should cooperate with each other for effective security governance to secure refugees.r
Sadia Afrin is Research Analyst, Micro Governance Research Initiatives (MGR)