Terrorism is the use of violence by organized groups against legitimate authorities in the pursuit of achieving some specific goals. Terrorist groups are active both internally and externally in the age of 21stcentury. Some of these are active in international arena under the same ideology in which domestic offshoots act as slipper cell of international terrorist networks. Basically opportunity, motivation and capability help creating a particular ideology is contained by the terrorist groups. Initially, CIA trained some Afghan Mujahidins near the Peshawar of Pakistan to fight against Soviet Union forces in Afghanistan in 1979 that event led to the formation of international terrorist group Al-Qaeda in 1988 in the Middle East. Afterwards, today's Islamic State (IS) is thought to be originated from Al-Qaeda after the end of the illegitimate 'Operation Iraqi Freedom'.
At the present time, terrorist groups are making the world know their vibrant presence by civilian casualties and destructions in different regions. State apparatus generally take action after incidents have been taken place which is mostly seen as approach to anti-terrorism and this kind of approach is primitive in the modern age when infestation of terrorist groups are being escalated both domestically and internationally like BokoHaram in Africa and Al-Qaeda, IS in the Middle East. BokoHaram has already pleaded allegiance to IS in March, 2015 as slipper cell.Recently, Terrorist attack in France, Mali and Lebanonhas killed 129 people,27 people and 43 people respectively. Terrorist groups should be uprooted before being evolved or committing their activities by invoking approach to counter-terrorism which is mostly effective to tackle the processes of terrorism ubiquitously. A comprehensive approach to counter- terrorism can be connoted in three cardinal steps.
Counter Ideology:This step is 'strategic' where the processes of terrorism should be taken into consideration through two major steps. Firstly, identifying the processes of evolving major ideological grounds to uproot terrorism as such, 'Spiritual confidence' that is causecherished by terrorist groups, 'intellectual confidence' that helps to attain the specific goals and 'material confidence' that helps the means of attaining goals. Secondly, it is known as the refinement of sensibility or 'the battle for hearts and minds' of the people who have propensity to be engaged into that process. The aim of this approach is to refine aforementioned three confidences in step one through several endeavors. A proper education system plays significant role for combating the spiritual and intellectual confidence of terrorism. Secularist education system is conducive to make people grow with non-communal in mentality but contextual cultural consideration should be amalgamated concomitantly. Media has charismatic role in creating ethical standing because it cultivates social values and norms in the society which pander people to avoid cherishing the asocial creeds. Economic hardship panders people who are living under absolute povertyto act on at the expense of benefits. Terrorist groups use such people as medium of supplying their tactical tools. Creation of proper employment sectors helps poor people to be receded from such involvement.
Counter insurgency: This step is 'tactical' in which measures are propelled in the field level through four basic sub-systems to annihilate terrorist groups before committing probable terrorist acts. Firstly, identifying the 'slipper cells' or the group of recruited members who are acting at the behest of their similar ideological groups in their own region as offshoot of international terrorist networks. Secondly, identifying and combatingthe financial linkages of terrorist groups in which they prioritize to transact. Thirdly, law enforcement agencies in domestic level operate preemptive drive in the probable harbor of terrorist groups and identify the previous records of terrorist groups concomitantly. Security Council of the United Nations has responsibility to take such measures for international terrorism. Fourthly, the process of terrorism is originated from society in which conscious members of that society can resist such process from inception. Social Movement is effective to resist the ambiance of terrorism.
Avoidance of Generalization:The process of terrorism is originated from a particular group but all members of that particular group are not involved in such process. For example; Muslims are seen doubtfully, in western society, that they are associative to such terrorism ubiquitously. Actually some groups of Muslim communities who have inculcated distorted ideology are responsible to such activities. In this respect, generalizing the whole communities will not only exclude them from the role of society but also increase the propensity of their involvement in such a process both domestically and internationally. Inclusion of conscious dominant persons from such groups is conducive to fight terrorist groups from which they are being originated and to avoid the generalization simultaneously.
Terrorism should be fought irrespective of political, religious, ethnic considerations. If terrorism like Frankenstein policy is used for any kinds of immediate beneficiary, it will be a long-term threat to social, regional,international peace and security.
The writer works for Human Rights. He has completed MSS in Peace and Conflict Studies from the University of Dhaka