Reasons and remedy for gallstone
Currently, one of the major health complications in our country is gallstone formation.Gallstones aren't really stones. They are pieces of solid material that form in the gallbladder.
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped small structure remains underneath the liver and by a common bile duct it's connected with the liver.The main functions of the gallbladder are to store and concentrate bile juice (which is produced in the liver) for the secretion at the proper time to the duodenum.
In developed countries, 10-15 per cent of adults have gallstones. After gallstone formation, the important functions of the gall bladder's secretion such as emulsifying action on fat particles and absorption of fatty acids, vitamins, monoglycerides, cholesterol, other lipids from the intestinal tract are affected. Even, gallstone can cause gallbladder cancer, research shows about 70-80 per cent gallbladder cancer patients having gallstone.
Photo source: Wikipedia
Too much cholesterol in bile can cause gallstones. The excess cholesterol forms crystals if too much absorption of water from bile is happened because of its insolubility in water and from these crystals gallstones may form.According to Harvard Health Publications, 80 percent of gallstones are made of cholesterol. The other 20 percent of gallstones are made of calcium salts and bilirubin. It can vary in size from a few millimeters to a few centimeters.
However, obese people, heredity, people with a high blood cholesterol level,liver disease or blood diseases such as sickle cell anemia, women who take drugs containing oestrogen, e.g. contraceptive pills having increased risk to form gallstone. Many drugs have been implicated in gallstone disease, common offenders include: ceftriaxone, clofibrate, progestogens, and octreotide. Some drugs are secreted into bile and may complex, precipitate, and form stones.
There are mainly two types of gallstones: cholesterol and pigment stones. Pigment stones may be black or brownstones and this type are common in this Asian region.
Gallstone disease may not be symptomatic until there are complications. Surprisingly, only one-third of patients will at some time experience symptoms. It can lead to pain in the upper right abdomen (acute cholecystitis), pain may start from time to time when the patient eats foods that are high in fat, such as fried foods. The pain doesn't usually last more than a few hours. Other symptoms include- nausea, vomiting, dark urine, clay-colored stools, stomach pain, burping, diarrhea, indigestion etc.
Hopefully, abdominal ultrasound is the most fruitful initial diagnostic tool, which may show soft tissue mass in the gallbladder. CT scan andERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography) may be needed to locate and remove bile duct stones.
Though the usual treatment for gallstone is surgery to remove the gallbladder there are also nonsurgical options but may recur within 5 years after nonsurgical treatment. Patient having a gallbladder attack or other symptoms should remove the gallbladder urgently for avoiding serious infection.
There are two types of surgery such as Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (generally patient would be able to go home on the same day of surgery) and another Open cholecystectomy (patient may have to stay in the hospital up to a week).
On the other hand, nonsurgical treatment includes Oral dissolution therapy, ursodiol and chenodiol are generally applied but that required months or even years to dissolve all stones and another option is 'shock wave lithotripsy' (wave pass through the patient's body and crush the gallstone).
The common question among people is "what would have happened after removal of the gallbladder?" Indeed, the gallbladder is not so much essential organ, that means one can live normally without a gallbladder.
In the absence of gallbladder bile flows out of the liver through the common bile ducts, instead of being stored in the gallbladder. Discomfort, softer stools after removal of the gallbladder may have happened but changes in bowel habits are usually temporary. After surgery patient should avoid fatty and high spicy food, alcoholic beverages and should take several small meals instead of 3 times a day.
However, one can minimize the risk of gallstones by maintaining healthy BMI and low cholesterol level through proper dietconsisting of fruits, vegetables, fish, and high fiber grains and breads, quitting smoking, exercising regularly and walking for at least 30 minutes a day may help prevent gallstone formation and the same time women should avoid oestrogen containing contraceptive pills for avoiding the high risk of gallstone formation.