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Sentence Equivalence

Published : Sunday, 14 January, 2018 at 12:00 AM Count : 90

1. By nature she was not _____ and so had great difficulty kowtowing to the company's top brass. (choose two options)
A. impudent
B. amenable
C. fawning
D. subversive
E. deferential obsequious
Answers: (C), (F)
To kowtow is to act in an excessively servile manner. She had great difficulty acting this way. Therefore the blank is a word related to 'kowtow.'
(A) impudent means cheeky, brash. The opposite of the word in the blank (B) amenable means cooperative and is not strong enough to fit the blank (C) fawning means subservient (D) subversive means going against authority (E) deferential, which means acting respectfully, is not extreme enough (F) obsequious, a synonym for fawning, fits context.

2. The heckler, hiding amongst the amorphous crowd, is the epitome of _______ - as soon as he has been identified, he goes scuttling off, head down, grumbling to himself. (choose two options)
A. stealthiness
B. outspokenness
C. shyness
D. aloofness
E. cravenness
F. spinelessness
Answers: (E), (F)
'...amongst the amorphous...' shows that when the heckler cannot be identified he hurls aggressive, inflammatory comments. As soon as he is identified, he sneaks away, 'head down...'
(A) stealthiness is an attractive answer choice, especially with the latter half of the sentence. It does not, however, capture the overall meaning of the sentence. Also there is no similar word

3. With the scandal _____ tarnishing his reputation, the judge was forced to give up jurisprudence. (choose two options)
A. unfairly
B. remotely
C. irrevocably
D. equivocally
E. permanently
F. peripherally
Answers: (C), (E)
The scandal resulted in the judge 'to give up...'. This shows the scandal was major and forever affected the judge's career.
(A) unfairly is not supported by the context (B) remotely does not fit the context (C) irrevocably means cannot be changed (D) equivocally means vaguely (E) permanently captures the sense that the scandal has had a lasting effect on the judge's career (F) peripherally means located on the side; of secondary importance

4. Oncologists struggle to determine the long-term carcinogenic effects of basic household products, as these effects, whatever they may be, are ______________ those resulting from the miasma of toxins we breathe once we leave our homes. (choose two options)
A. exacerbated by
B. confounded with
C. attenuated by
D. obscured by
E. displaced by
F. subjected to
Answers: (B), (D)
The keywords are 'struggle to determine', 'effects of...products', 'toxins...our homes.' Oncologists (those who study cancer/tumors) cannot determine the effects of household products because those effects are mixed together with the negative effects of breathing outdoor toxins.
(A) exacerbated means to make worse. It is not necessarily that the effects are made worse, though that is probably the case. The idea is the oncologists struggle to tease out the harmful effects from household products and outdoor toxins. (B) When results are confounded they are essentially mixed together, so we cannot determine the effect each has independently (C) attenuated means weakened or reduced in force or intensity (D) obscured implies that the household effects are difficult to determine because they are mixed together with the outdoor effects

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