Home-grown pesticides for environmental security
Modern farming practices and development works have imposed tremendous pressure on the environmental security and sustainability. Infectious diseases, ecological deterioration, loss of biodiversity, soil health depletion, extermination of beneficial pest and climate alteration have become the recurrent comprehensive threats today.
Our farming practices are intensifying in the name of rejuvenation. Intensification encourages farmers to employ more agrochemicals in land. Even farmers are involved in commercial cultivation and contract farming with national and international companies. International agencies counsel local farmers to use hybrid seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, water pulling out machine -- formed by them. In general modern agriculture has brought good for farmers. But the existing crisis -- higher amount of methane gas production, killing both beneficial and harmful pest, less pollination, arsenic pollution, and nutritional pollution, skin diseases of farmers, soil erosion and environmental degradation emerge insurgency.
Farmers employ detrimental agrochemicals in crops land without considering the beneficial pest protection and pollination. Potash, sulphate, calcium carbonate, triples super phosphate are normally used in field. For potato, egg-plant they apply --- carbendajin, wantap-50, wansilva 10, quinfis-25 per cent, denitol, festaq 2.5, melathion, corden, methoxicore, bydrin, dibrone, diajinon 10, lebasid and dimecron. Fenom, theovit, nexin, sevin, diplerox, monotuf 40, thiojen has been used for sponge gourd, ribbed gourd, teasel gourd, sweet gourd, cucumber, cabbage, cauliflower and Hyacinth bean. In the same way, for Aush, Amon and Boro -- polivit-500, kiridan-5, crijol-5, basudin-10, topsin mithyle, ripcord, dursburn 20 and sebin-60 are used.
Such type of used chemicals kill harmful pest -- damri poka, bolta, mazra poka, leda poka, Gandhi poka, bag, kalo poka, aphids, small caterpillar, leafhoppers, cabbage maggots, whileflies etc. But at the same time, agrochemicals kill beneficial pests and microorganisms which are very essential for pollination. Some of them are -- cyanobacteria, azotobactor, ghas foring, pata foring, sobuj poka, pata poka, damsel bugs, ground beetles, lacewings, pirate bugs, tachinid flies etc. Not only, pests are killed but also, frogs, birds, snakes, ledibirda bittole are killed by agrochemicals. As a result, crops pollination is now under danger. Pesticides can potentially wipe out common bumble bee (bombus terretis) populations. Prof Nigel Raine mentions: globally, 26 per cent less capacity of pollination has been visible nowadays.
The primary benefits are the consequences of the pesticides' effects -- the direct gains expected from their use. For example the effect of killing caterpillars feeding on the crop brings the primary benefit of higher yields and better quality of cabbage. The three main effects result in 26 primary benefits ranging from protection of recreational turf to saved human lives.
The secondary benefits are the less immediate or less obvious benefits that result from the primary benefits. They may be subtle, less intuitively obvious, or of longer term. It follows that for secondary benefits it is therefore more difficult to establish cause and effect, but nevertheless they can be powerful justifications for pesticide use.
For example the higher cabbage yield might bring additional revenue that could be put towards children's education or medical care, leading to a healthier, better educated population. There are various secondary benefits identified, ranging from fitter people to conserved biodiversity.
On the other hand, pesticides can contaminate soil, water, turf, and other vegetation. In addition to killing insects or weeds, pesticides can be toxic to a host of other organisms including birds, fish, beneficial insects, and non-target plants. Insecticides are generally the most acutely toxic class of pesticides, but herbicides can also pose risks to non-target organisms.
Heavy treatment of soil with pesticides can cause populations of beneficial soil microorganisms to decline. According to the soil scientist Dr Elaine Ingham, "If we lose both bacteria and fungi, then the soil degrades. Overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides have effects on the soil organisms that are similar to human overuse of antibiotics. Indiscriminate use of chemicals might work for a few years, but after a while, there aren't enough beneficial soil organisms to hold onto the nutrients".
Pollination is essential for crops that will escalate by the use indigenous manures. The bio-fertilizers -- green wastes, coconut cake, oil cakes, sludge, coal ash, wood ash, paddy husk, castor cake, mustard cake, groundnut cake, linseed cake, neem cake, fish meal, water hyacinths, cow dung, vegetable materials, stool of livestock's, weeds of big tree, farmyard manures etc.
These manures have a possible upshot help in correcting severe unsustainable microbiological or chemical reaction of soil escalate pollination. Biological system -- bacillus thuringiensis can make protein oriented compound which kills lepidopetra and colepetra class based insects. The protein element of tobacco mosaic can eradicate X-virus and Y-virus. Osmotin and seamatin protein prevents hostile fungus.
In addition, we make indigenous pesticides from neem pata, tamak pata, guegenta pata, nishinda pata, dhuturar pata, bish khatali pata, mehogonir fol and then employ in crops land to protect beneficial pests, ensure pollination security and soaring agriculture production.
There is a need to convey the message that prevention of adverse health effects and promotion of health are profitable investments for employers and employees as a support to a sustainable development of economics.
To sum up, based on our limited knowledge of direct and/or inferential information, the domain of pesticides illustrates a certain ambiguity in situations in which people are undergoing life-long exposure. There is thus every reason to develop health education packages based on knowledge, aptitude and practices and to disseminate them within the community in order to minimize human exposure to pesticides.
The writer is environmental analyst